Saturday, May 23, 2020
Media Rationale and Publicity As previously stated, the promotion should utilize print and possibly television advertising, e-marketing, sales-generating promos, direct marketing, and public relations outreach. Each of these elements must be tweaked to target the younger segment of consumers in order to spur sales in the short term and form brand loyalty/habits in the segment for later. The second goal is in fact more important, since the generation will ultimately age and take on more decision-making capacities for properties in the future. Each element of the promotional mix can help to achieve this goal. Print and television advertising are conventional approaches with huge reach. They will contact large audiences, and will generate broad public awareness of the message, which is that winter is approaching and as temperatures drop pests will come indoors. To preserve a safe and clean home, our services are necessary. This message simultaneously creates a need and justifies the val ue of our service. The images of print ads and possible television ads should be executed with the maximum level of creativity. The grizzly details of pests are less important than the association of Truly Nolen with absence of disgusting pests. If this can be achieved, creativity can be relatively unchained in our adds, an approach which will free us to engage younger consumers with cultural references, trends, and symbols meaningful to them. As far as television goes, cost must beShow MoreRelatedJamberoo Marketing Business Report, Thomas Sabo Marketing Plan2176 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesenables the business to engage consumers with constantly updated products. Customer-Oriented Marketing Rationale JAPÃ¢â¬â¢s customer-oriented marketing rationale is aimed at increasing customer satisfaction, the magnitude of visitors and revenue. Market segmentation processes and surveys are used to identify the needs and wants of particular target markets. The customer-oriented marketing rationale is a strength in JAPÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing plan as it enables marketing strategies to be refined to appeal to particularRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article The Real Beauty Backlash 1053 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages This Country: Regulated by Media What dictates the social roles, the individual responsibility everyone has in society, and stereotypes, an overgeneralized and oversimplified belief of a particular person or group, in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s 21st century society? Can rationale and critical thinking be held accountable for the establishment of ethical beliefs involving people and their sex, gender related value systems? The following readings covered in this essay are both found within the textbook, Signs ofRead MoreMarketing Proposal : Marketing Plan1575 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprofitability without deviating from the core mission. This proposal will address the key issues facing the company, propose strategies to solve the pertinent issues and choose the best strategy for implementation. Furthermore, the proposal will explain the rationale for choosing the aforementioned strategy and analyze the strategyÃ¢â¬â¢s execution plan. Statement of Purpose The aim of this marketing proposal is to identify the key issues lowering profitability at Greyston Bakery, propose three strategies to increaseRead MoreMovie Marketing : More Than Just Media Interviews1025 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMovie marketing Ã¢â¬â more than just media interviews Description: Over the past 10 years Hollywood has been filling less and less seats in its theatres. Home-entertainment options like streamed movies/TV shows and video games have significantly eaten away at moviegoers motivation to visit the big screen. Hollywood has fought hard to maintain its profitability by providing a richer viewing experience to its patrons. Investments in technology like Real D 3D projectors and rich sound systems haveRead MoreCollege Admissions Public Relations Campaign Essay960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesparents to experience the campus without ever leaving their home (YouVisit, n.d.). Presence in social media networks should be established to allow students share their ideas and interact with Faculty staff. Most students interact heavily through social networks. In fact, studies indicate that 95% of all college students interact with some form of social media (Dunn, 2012). Therefore, advertising on social networks and search engines will direct prospective students to the college website. RecruitingRead MoreShort Notes on Marketing of Financial Services2863 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesproduction facilities. The promotion Promotion is one of the market mix elements, and a term used frequently in marketing. The specification of five promotional mix or promotional plan. These elements are personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, and publicity. A promotional mix specifies how much attention to pay to each of the five subcategories, and how much money to budget for each. A promotional plan can have a wide range of objectives, including: sales increases, newRead MoreBoa Resolution2496 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBOARD OF ACCOUNTANCY Resolution No. 126 Series of 2008 ADOPTION OF THE RULES AND REGULATIONS ON ADVERTISING FOR THE PHILIPPINE ACCOUNTANCY PROFESSION WHEREAS, the Philippine Accountancy Act of 2004, Article II Section 9(f) empowers the Board of Accountancy Ã¢â¬Å"to prescribe and/or adopt a Code of Ethics for the practice of accountancyÃ¢â¬ and Section 9(g) provides that the Board of Accountancy shall Ã¢â¬Å"monitor the conditions of accountancy and adopt such measures, including promulgation of accounting andRead MoreUse of Integrated Marketing Communications in the Fast Food Industry1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMoreover, marketers can combine IMC tools (advertising, sale promotion, personal selling, direct marketing and public relations) rather than separate practices to create values and avoid potential conflicts (Duncan Everett, 1993). In fast food industry, fast food chains integrate advertising, sale promotion, sponsorship, packaging and Internet to promote their products as well as build brand image (Sperber, 2003; Story French, 2004; Morrison, 2010). Advertising is most used form of communication andRead MoreCase Study Nordstrom: How to Succeed by Selling Just One Shoe by Allen White1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmaster their department while Targets employees can work in a different department any given day. 3. Analyze the six components of NordstromÃ¢â¬â¢s retailing mix to determine which have the most important to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Provide a detailed rationale. Product, place, promotion, price, presentation and personnel are the six components of the retailing mix. Known as the six Ps projects a stores image and influences a customersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception. Product is the first element of the retail mix where retailersRead MoreMkt 505 Courseguide6356 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesCritical role of leadership on ethical climate and salesperson behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 125-141. Okazaki, S., Mueller, B. Taylor, C. (2010). Global consumer culture positing: Testing perceptions of soft-sell and hard-sell advertising appeals between U.S. and Japanese consumers. Journal of International Marketing, 18(2), 20-34. Santos, N. J., Laczniak, G. R. (2009). Marketing to the poor: An integrative justice model for engaging impoverished market segments. Journal of Public
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
This law has been an abysmal failure. It hasnt reduced or eliminated drinking. It has simply driven it underground, behind closed doors, into the most risky and least manageable of settings,(Debate) said John McCardell of Ã¢â¬Å"Choose ResponsibilityÃ¢â¬ . Choose Responsibility is a non-profit organization that is for lowering the drinking age to 18. Young adults can vote, fight and die for their country overseas, and purchase tobacco at age 18, but why cannot they have a beer? Drinking among the youth in the United States has escalated to dangerous levels such as binge drinking, reckless parties, and even death. The average age when kids take their first sip of alcohol is a staggering 14 years of age (Debate). The legal drinking age ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The adults in this country should step up their game, and put a stop to these actions. This brings in the next option. Which is for parents to step in, take command, and teach their kids the responsibilities of being a young adult. The legal age of 21 pushes kids under the age behind closed doors, putting them in the out most danger of alcohol and the effects of it on the bodies of the youth. Behind these closed doors, teens are least supervised around a big group of friends with tons of alcohol, and the peer pressure of having one more drink, then that turns into two more drinks, then that into three, and so on a so forth. This act of binge drinking could skyrocket the risks of getting into a car with friends and driving under the influence. DUIs can cause death, which leads to lawsuits, which then leads to less money, then leads to more problems at home and blood on the parents hands. Adults of this country are reconized at the age of eighteen. On a childs eighteenth birthday, the adult may want to go enlist in the army, buy a carton of cigarettes, or even vote for the next president of the USA. But they cannot purchase alcohol. What is worse; fighting overseas with machine guns with blood everywhere, or a beer? If the United States of Americas government says that a child at 18 is a legal adult and move out on his/her own and start a family or do anything listed above, but they cannot purchase or legally consume alcohol. TheShow MoreRelatedThe Legal Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered973 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Legal Age for Drinking Alcohol Should Not Be Lowered To 18 In the United States. Every state has the right to set its own legal drinking age. However, according to George Will in an article he wrote in the Washington Post about the legal drinking age, Ã¢â¬Å"drinking age paradoxÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"lowering the drinking age will cost the state ten percent of its federal highway funds and cause a significant uproar from contractors and construction unions.Ã¢â¬ It is therefore in the best interest of every citizenRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe definition of the word adult is: Ã¢â¬Å"a person who has attained the age of maturity as specified by lawÃ¢â¬ (Dictionary.com). If this is so, then why is it that in the United States 18 year olds are legally considered adults in our society, but they canÃ¢â¬â¢t legally buy or consume alcohol? Yet at this age they are able to vote in an election, get married, serve on a jury, live on their own, purchase cigarettes, adopt a child, and defend our country. These are not easy tasks for one to take on, yet our governmentRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the United States of America, the National Government requires the states to enforce a legal drinking age of twenty-one. Where as the world average drinking age is eighteen, and in some Countries it is even lower where it is possible to get a beer at sixteen years of age. Taking that into consideration, there is a great deal of controversy in the United States on what the legal age should be to purchase and consume an alcoholic beverage. The largest issue being that you are considered to be anRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered1170 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFor a majority of the 20th century, the United States drinking age has been a big issue. After prohibition had concluded in 1933, twenty- one was the new legal drinking age. Meanwhile, during the Vietnam War, eighteen became the new legal drinking age. Finally in 1984, Congress pa ssed the National Minimum Drinking Age Act (MLDA). Since then, twenty-one years old has been the legal age to drink in the United States. There are several ways alcohol has been a reason for death such as, alcohol poisoningRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesold male who lives in Oregon. To celebrate his 18th birthday, he decided to go out with some friends and have a few drinks. He knows that the legal drinking age is 21, but he thinks what is the harm? I am 18 and in other countries, you are allowed to drink before you turn 21. Later that night as John gets in the car with his friends after a few hours of drinking, everything seems to be going well as they are driving down the freeway on their way over to his friend DanÃ¢â¬â¢s house that is just a few milesRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Legal Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered There are copious amounts of people who believe that the legal drinking age should be lowered to eighteen. Others think the drinking age needs to remain the same. A few of those also conclude the legal age of adulthood should be raised to 21. The belief is if the adolescent brain has not matured enough to support alcohol use by age 21, it cannot make the responsible decisions required at 18 years of age. Voters should make the decision toRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto the legal age of alcohol consumption have been going on for many years. While some feel that 21 should remain as the legal minimum consumption age, others disagree. By examining different aspects of alcohol consumption such as social motives and health related concerns one is more able to fully grasp the role that alcohol plays in our society. Through research and analyzation one can come to the conclusion that a lowered legal drinking age is not the answe r. The legal drinking age should not beRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered Essay1548 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the United States, the legal drinking age is twenty-one. In all fifty states, however, there are exceptions for underaged drinking at home, under adult supervision, or for medical purposes (Ã¢â¬Å"Drinking AgeÃ¢â¬ ). Overall, the legal opportunities for any person under twenty-one to legally drink alcohol are very scarce. There are many different points, made by people from both sides of the issue about whether or not to lower the drinking age to eighteen, or leave it where it currently stands at twenty-oneRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe century, underage drinking happens every day in the United States and for some this might seem unacceptable but for most this is all because an unfair law put up by the government. The legal drinking age should be lowered from 21 to 18 because, among other things; 18 is the age of adulthood in America and adults should have the right to make their own decisions, also traffic accidents and fatalities are most common among newly-legal drinkers regardless of their drinking age; and, this law has notRead MoreLegal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered2099 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages friends, and the feeling of being invincible. Although there are a legal alcohol drinking and purchasing age in various countries, it is easily accessible to those who are underage. Alcohol is a monitored and controlled substance that can be purchased legally, yet there are many concerns that surround the substance. There are pros, cons, and different patterns regarding alcohol and the legal alcohol drinking and purchasing age. As a result of alcohol use, there have been many fatalities and injuries
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Police corruption is the misuse of police authority for personal gain. Examples include extortion (for example, demanding money for not writing traffic tickets) and bribery (for example, accepting money in exchange for not enforcing the law). The costs of police corruption Police corruption carries high costs. We will write a custom essay sample on Police Corruption or any similar topic only for you Order Now First, a corrupt act is a crime. Second, police corruption detracts from the integrity of the police and tarnishes the public image of law enforcement. Third, corruption protects other criminal activity such as drug dealing and prostitution. Protected criminal activities are often lucrative sources of income for organized crime. The causes of police corruption According to the rotten apple theory, corruption is the work of a few, dishonest, immoral police officers. Experts dismiss this theory because it fails to explain why so many corrupt officers become concentrated in some police organizations but not others. Another explanation pinpoints U.S. societyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the criminal law to enforce morality. Unenforceable laws governing moral standards promote corruption because they provide criminal organizations with a financial interest in undermining law enforcement. Narcotic corruption, for example, is an inevitable consequence of drug enforcement. Providers of these illegal goods and service use part of their profits to bribe the police in order to ensure the continuation of criminal enterprises. Rooting out police corruption When police controls break down and a scandal occurs, special investigating commissions can mobilize public opinion and rally public support for anticorruption and antiviolence reforms. Commissions get information from the police department, pinpoint where the internal controls of the police have failed, and recommend changes in policy. The problem with these commissions is that they usually disappear after finishing their reports. Paul Chevigny asserts that continuing independent auditors would be more effective than commissions. He envisions the function of such auditors as investigating a range of police problems, including corruption andÃ brutality. Prosecuting corrupt police officers Since corruption involves criminal behavior, prosecution of corrupt police officers is possible. Since prosecutors depend on the police to gather evidence and develop cases, however, they often donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to Ã¢â¬Å"bite the hand that feeds them.Ã¢â¬ Legislative control Legislators could reevaluate laws that create the potential for corruption. Such a reassessment would be based on the recognition that a major portion of police corruption is an outgrowth of laws that criminalize drug use, prostitution, and gambling. Any serious attempt to fight police corruption must wrestle with the decriminalization issue. Decriminalization involves removing the criminal label from victimless crimes by legalizing and regulating them. Decriminalization would contribute significantly to improving the police corruption problem. It is doubtful, however, that Congress or any state legislature will seriously consider legalizing drugs or any other prohibited goods and services in the near future. How to cite Police Corruption, Papers Police Corruption Free Essays Drug-Related Police Corruption: An Increasing Problem Throughout Law Enforcement Agencies In The United States In the United States, drug-related police corruption is becoming an increasingly, unjustifiable problem throughout the ranks of law enforcement agencies. Many variables exist to explain the reason for their actions, but ultimately, what makes them do it? Knowing how to recognize a corrupted officer or one exhibiting signs of traveling down the wrong path is essential in order to mitigate the problem. Law enforcement leadership also plays a vital role in the identity and prevention of drug-related corruption. We will write a custom essay sample on Police Corruption or any similar topic only for you Order Now Drug-related police corruption is any act by a sworn police officer that is the sale, manufacture, distribution or supporting of drug activities for the personal gain of the officer. Why is this corruption a problem? Many law enforcement officers who are sworn in to protect the lives of our citizens, to abide and uphold the law, are doing the exact opposite, and this is a problem. The purpose of the study is to provide empirical data on cases of drug-related police corruption. It identifies and describes incidents in which police officers are arrested for criminal offenses associated with drug-related corruption. Data was analyzed on 221 drug-related arrest cases of officers employed by police agencies throughout the USA. Findings show that drug-related corruption involves a wide range of criminal offenses and that cocaine is the most prevalent drug. Older officers and those used by large companies are less likely than others to lose their jobs after a drug-related arrest (Philip Stinson, 2013). Drug-related police corruption is a problem that will not go away on its own which is evident by the statistics. The first step in preventing corruption would be to recognize the signs of a corrupted officer. Learn what puts an officer at risk of becoming corrupted, and what makes them defy the law they swore to uphold, protect and defend. Drug corruption is born out of police attitudes because if an officer is lacking the right attitude then corruption can become a mainstay for that officer (Cheurprakobkit, 1998). For example, if any officers believe that the enforcement of drug laws is a waste of their time and that they are underpaid, they may accept a bribe from a drug trafficker to allow the trade. This places a little more money in their pocket and allows them not to worry about enforcing a law they may not agree with. Knowing how to identify the signs of a corrupted officer is a necessary step to decreasing the amount of drug-related corruption, and may one day lead to mitigating the issue. What leads law enforcement to corruption? After looking at yearly sales of different drugs in the United States, it was found that weed brings in about $3 billion dollars, heroin $10 billion, and cocaine, a whopping $38 billion dollars annually (Stevens, 1999). If you pay attention to these numbers, you can clearly see how easy it would be for a low paid, frustrated police officer to turn corrupt and help with the sale, transport, or manufacturing of illegal substances. To reduce police corruption, the commissions recommend creating external oversight over the police with a unique focus on integrity, improving recruitment and training, guidance from supervisors of all ranks about integrity, holding all commanders responsible for the misbehavior of subordinates, and changing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture to tolerate misbehavior less (Perito, 2011). While drug-related police corruption continues to pose a threat at some level in every law enforcement agency, it does not necessarily mean there is a high percentage of corrupt law enforcement officials. While it is a problem, it could be prevented with proactive steps Ã¢â¬â observing the actions and lifestyles of these police officers. There is an opportunity for corruption wherever there are drugs present, and no law enforcement official should be above suspicion. Corruption has been identified at the lowest and highest levels. How to cite Police Corruption, Papers
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: What is the applicability of present positive accounting research? Answer : Introduction Positive accounting is a branch of academic accounting research that is contrasted with normative accounting(Bowen, 2008). The article Half a defense of positive Accounting Research by Paul V Dunmore examines the various concepts related to the scope of positive accounting research. The term positive accounting was formed and developed by Watts and Zimmerman who formed the theory. The scope of this paper evaluates a broader framework for understanding and applicability of positive accounting research in accordance to human behavioral setting(Lennox, 2011). Poppers falsification criteria fail to test logic for statistical testing and superficial analogues. Existing models and theoretical frameworks are rather casual in nature that has heavy reliance on testing hypothesis. The scope of this report identifies the framework for positive accounting research by completely reviewing of the article. The pertinent research questions are identified from the same article along with the theoreti cal framework and significance of the article(Malmi, 2009). The article has provided useful information and inputs for formation and growth of the stream of positive accounting framework. Summary of the Article The article evaluates relevant concepts regarding positive accounting in a broader sense with explanations in accordance to human behavior. Positive accounting is an extremely useful concept hence it is examined according to ontology and epistemology of the program(Gaffikin, 2007). While defining positive accounting it has to be accommodated that it incorporates a wider framework of research which is scientific in nature and analyses by means of cause-and effect relationships(Smith, 2014). Accounting in contemporary organizations involves less human interventions and more of interpersonal complex systems that are used for decision making and information processing. Conducting accounting research by way of ontology and epistemology enables overcoming shortfalls and challenges incurred in positive accounting research(Hopwood, 2007). Positive accounting research has been conducted by multiple researchers has been unable to explore and make contribution towards application of projects. Auditing literatures will be able to make positive contribution towards development of positive accounting research. Through well-established social systems positive accounting research will be able to achieve its real purpose. Kuhn (1970) initially suggested a concept for a disciplinary matrix approach which rather appears to be a paradigm for making an intellectual contribution(Dunmore, 2011). Lee (1997) also supported the paradigm proposed by self-replicating such data. The article is based on scientific proceeding by incorporating in random data collection with reliable information. There has been various positive research in accounting undertaken by Watts and Zimmerman. Their contribution is remarkable as they devised a theory for it by expressing an operational phenomenon. However, there are a large number of controversies on this given model as it is a fundamental model which cannot be defended in qualitative terms(Gow, 2010). The ways that managers deploy in for making decisions depict that there might be a number of ways in which accounting information might be presented. The usefulness of this article is in examining the gap that exists among positive accounting research and the applicable research which are practiced. Kuhn proposes a real world view of the aspect of positive accounting unlike Popper, who had proposed hypotheses for testing and applicability. Popper believes that testing of hypotheses and analyzing their results can yield valuable insights into accounting practices. The scope of this research proposes a puzzle that can be solved and applied by researchers in the field. Positive accounting research can be viewed as a nexus of contractual view of the company by providing an accounting tool for facilitation and performance. The publication made is complaint paradigm that established high rejection rates. Thus, from the findings of the research it can be established that Type I error is new and unexpected in nature thus, can make significant contribution. Many researchers who view positive accounting to be deficient can make use of this journal and extend the work. Poppers criteria is focused on falsification and hypothesis testing through collected data. There are many researchers who rely on statistical procedures for testing their claims and in building of theories. But there are several potential weaknesses associated with the statistical procedure itself. Hypothesis testing fails due to technical issues multiple number of times. Comparison with Pioneer anomaly further reveals the weakness associated with the results. However, as accounting data is subject to a series of measurement error and noise there remains role for statistics in positive accounting research. but the central theme of utilization of statistics should be to apply it in making of estimation rather than incorporating in for hypothesis testing procedures. Positive accounting research provides a wider endeavor that is scientific in nature, for incorporating in human behavior and in understanding complex behaviors of organizations. In practice world decisions are influenced by way of control systems and specialized information, thus it cannot have weak methods for drawing inferences. Positive accounting research needs more of theoretical models that can have applicability, they need to also provide scope for improvement. Further these models needs to be as accurate as possible in nature, either horizontal or linear in approach. Theoretical models needs to be tested and developed with experimental capabilities hence have to have an analytical approach. But the scope of positive accounting research has remained aloof from empirical tests. Models proposed by Feltham and Ohlson (1995) offer some path for testing their propositions. Focus of positive research needs to be on measurement which offers shift from testing. Choi et al. (2009) offe rs audit complexity and strength from legal regime which are related to each other. Hence, while testing and measuring concepts needs to be detailed and cleared for understanding. Thus, all the studies conducted are more replication after replication rather than proposing something new. The objective behind replication is to explore the limits of previously suggested models and reflect on the sampling errors of them. Thus, extending the approach of earlier research work done and providing applicability for the same. Research The scope of this study and article has evaluated various pertinent research questions that have been evaluated throughout the scope of the research(Kabir, 2011). Some pertinent theoretical questions are as follows; Theoretical Framework The thesis statement proposed in contemporary accounting research evaluates mechanisms that shape financial statement information making approaches(Ahmed, 2007). The first approach discussed here is focused on investors while the second one is focused on managers. Hence, the first approach proposes that financial statements are for investors, this is the main approach identified by primary accounting research. This views has also gained support from financial reporting standards setting boards and key textbooks for accounts. Thus, the primary focus of the theory remains that investors are the audience for financial statement information. Therefore, it draws from this that financial statements need to be regulated that can protect investors from frauds and conspicuous reporting(Larcker, 2010). But then also investors do not base their decisions solely on financial reporting and capital markets functions as avenues that help mitigate financial risks. While investors avert opportunists views of managers the sole reliability of the theory is to protect the status of investors. Thus, arises scope for providing an alternate way whereby a separate point of view can be established. Fundamental requirement for critical qualitative research for theoretical models has to provide applicable limits. Hence, studies needs to valuated competing theories while treating a theory that can examine wider data sets(Kothari, 2010). Through positive accounting human behavior or approaches to accounting can be established. There are theories present which cannot be challenged and applicability is assumed compared to evidencing them. The outputs from these various theories consists of uninterruptable coefficients that might or might not be consistent across samples. Hence the need for a theory was released and positive accounting theory was established(Bisman, 2010). Significance and Limitations of the Article The significance of this article is in approaching positive accounting research by way of ontology and epistemology which had not been attempted earlier(Oler, 2010). The new line of research was extremely powerful in determining ways and means that accounting can progress. The research done within the article has made several serious contributions as mentioned below; It has been identified that there is a need for development of a theoretical model that can be highly specific and vulnerable(Barth, 2008). There was a need of a model that can be applied and be used for further research of scholars. The need of a model which can easily be tested and structured was high as it was insufficiently developed. The model has provided means for measurement that can be operationalized. While selecting a model for application functional attributes of the same needs to be formed and linear relationship with other concepts needs to be made(Melis, 2007). The reliable measure can act in favor of audit as well by depiction of correct parameters. While most models deals with testing of hypothesis, this model proposes parameters for measurements. Measurement with significant skill and results was estimated by use of this model(Tjosvold, 2008). Finally the article provides validation of conclusion from testing of hypothesis for confirmation of accuracy for extending limits of research. Conclusion The area of positive accounting research has made tremendous contributions to wider number of projects due to its applicability. The key objective of the paper is to identify the various forces that help shape financial statement information. There are two viewpoints that have been analyzed in the study. While predominant research in the field suggests investors viewpoint being the key driving force, the scope of this paper examines epistemology and ontology of positive research. The paper addresses the key gap areas which current researches in accounting does not account for a successful research program. Though there remain several suggestions for quantitative positive research, yet there remains to be a need for theoretical models that are specific and vulnerable for detailed testing purpose. As several models in is positive accounting research have failed to make serious impacts, accounting relationships are merely expressed in terms of signs that can link two variables. There is immense number of elaborate models for the purpose of analytical research but they are not structured well such that they can be implemented or can be operational in nature. Hence, the paper draws on a stable model that can function well and be applied in the aspects of positive accounting research. The scope of this paper might not be provide much enhancement to the human knowledge but will be useful for researchers who are willing to make positive contribution in the field. Reference Ahmed, A. S. (2007). Accounting conservatism and board of director characteristics: An empirical analysis. . Journal of accounting and economics, 411-437. Barth, M. E. (2008). International accounting standards and accounting quality. Journal of accounting research, 467-498. Bisman, J. (2010). Postpositivism and accounting research: A (personal) primer on critical realism. Australasian Accounting Business Finance Journal, 3. Bowen, R. M. (2008). Accounting discretion, corporate governance, and firm performance. Contemporary Accounting Research, 351-405. Dunmore, P. V. (2011). Half a Defence of Positive Accounting Research. Gaffikin, M. (2007). Accounting research and theory: the age of neo-empiricism. . Australasian Accounting Business Finance Journal, 1. Gow, I. D. (2010). Correcting for cross-sectional and time-series dependence in accounting research. The Accounting Review, 483-512. Hopwood, A. G. (2007). Whither accounting research?. The accounting review, 1365-1374. Kabir, H. (2011). Positive accounting theory and science. Kothari, S. P. (2010). Implications for GAAP from an analysis of positive research in accounting. . Journal of Accounting and Economics, 246-286. Larcker, D. F. (2010). On the use of instrumental variables in accounting research. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 186-205. Lennox, C. S. (2011). Selection models in accounting research. . The Accounting Review, 589-616. Malmi, T. . (2009). In search of management accounting theory. European Accounting Review, 597-620. Melis, A. (2007). Financial statements and positive accounting theory: The early contribution of Aldo Amaduzzi. . Accounting, Business Financial History, 53-62. Oler, D. K. (2010). Characterizing accounting research. Accounting Horizons, 635-670. Smith, M. (2014). Research methods in accounting. Sage. Tjosvold, D. (2008). The conflict?positive organization: It depends upon us. . Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19-28.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Research Proposal on Urbanization Essay Urbanization is the process of the increase of the role of cities in the life and development of the human society. The core factors which cause urbanization are the concentration and growth of industry in big cities, the increase of their cultural and political functions and the higher possibility of employment. A characteristic feature of urbanization is the constant flow of population from the rural areas into a big city with the purpose to find work, entertain, study, etc. The process which can be opposed to urbanization is ruralization and means the flow of people from the big cities to the small towns and villages because of various factors (poor ecological situation, busy way of life, bankrupting of the city, etc). The process of urbanization is possible due to the transformation of the rural settlements into big towns and cities; formation of the wide suburban areas; migration from the countryside to the urban areas. There is an interesting process which is aimed at the optimization of the natural environment for the life of people in the urban areas and it is called urbanization of the nature. The brightest examples of this process are parks and green recreational areas in the boarders of the big city, which serve for the aesthetic and ecological purposes. The process of urbanization can be called a logical one, because the role of cities is extremely important for people. Cities provide people with work, cultural life, entertainment, education, constant move, energy, dynamics, all sorts of activity, etc. Moreover, cities have always been the political centers where the fate and the international position of every country were made. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Urbanization specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Urbanization specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Urbanization specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Urbanization is an interesting topic which can explain the role of cities for the life and development of the human civilization. The topic is quite relevant, because the number of cities is constantly growing and it is sensible to improve knowledge on this problem and prepare a good research paper on it. Of course, before writing a research paper a student is supposed to complete a high-quality urbanization research proposal and persuade the professor that the choice of the topic is successful. One should complete well-organized methodology and literature review sections and explain the purpose of the research and illustrate the predicted results. It will not be a secret that many students face troubles while writing their research proposals, so the high-quality help of the Internet will be quite useful for everyone. A free sample research proposal on urbanization prepared by the professional writer can teach every student how to organize and format the text correctly. Moreover, with the assistance of a free example research proposal on urbanization one can get to know about the topic more. At EssayLib.com writing service you can order a custom research proposal on Urbanization topics. Your research paper proposal will be written from scratch. We hire top-rated PhD and MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s writers only to provide students with professional research proposal help at affordable rates. Each customer will get a non-plagiarized paper with timely delivery. Just visit our website and fill in the order form with all proposal details: Enjoy our professional research proposal writing service!
Friday, March 6, 2020
Jules Verne The Father of Science Fiction essays Jules Verne: The Father of Science Fiction The father of Science Fiction, a visionary French novelist, a short story writer, and a dramatist. This is the essence of the man we know today as Jules Verne. In his voluminous writings he foresaw a number of scientific devices and developments that were more than a century ahead of his time. Some of the inventions he imagined were created later in his lifetime, but some are still to be invented. He wrote over 80 books mostly before 1900 and a few of the things he described were helicopters, modern weapons, movies with sound, television and rockets. He was also the author of 20,000 Leagues under the Sea, which was written in the 1800's - years before the first sub was invented. Jules Verne was an amazing writer who predicted the science future of the world. He was popular with all kinds of readers: rich, poor, young, old, scientists, artists and rulers. Jules Verne came into Nantes, France on February 8, 1828. As a son of a magistrate he was a very ambitious child who was always eager to learn and be knowledgeable. His parents were also very interested in traveling and going on safaris to new and undiscovered lands (Verne, Microsoft Encarta). This was thought to have a big influence on his later writings. When he was six years old he began attending boarding school and when he was nine he moved on to St. Stanislas, a secondary school, with younger brother, Paul (Verne, Something about the Author). When he was very young he ran off to be a cabin boy on a merchant ship, but he was caught and returned to his parents ("Jules Verne" Encyclopedia Britannica). In 1847 Jules was sent to study law in Paris. While there, however, his passion for theatre grew. Later in 1850, Jules Verne's first play was published. He then dropped out of Law School and began to explore the field of theatre and writing more intensely. However, his father was outraged when he h ...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Not Listening to a Child as a Form of Neglect - Essay Example However, the real challenge is the application of past findings and integrating them in the participation of children for the sustainability of their rights. It is apparent from stereotypes and perceptions that the rights of children have been neglected hence impacting on the development of children. According to Lansdown (2005), listening to children's expressions and experiences at school, home or other environmental settings helps in raising their esteem, social skills, and cognitive abilities. Therefore, the more children are involved and engaged, the more they increase their competence, confidence and acquisition of other skills. It is important as a parent or for any responsible person to positively engage them through listening them, as it will contribute positively to their mental and psychological growth. Marginalized children and those who are vulnerable in society especially the looked after face a challenge in realizing their potential, thus they should be provided with support through participatory engagement and listening to their demands and needs (Howe and Covell 2005). Listening to children also helps challenge situations of violence, discrimination, injustices or other related threats therefore serving to protect children. Silencing children means that any injustices against them are kept in the dark, while the abusers get protected rather than the children. Jones and Welch (2010) affirm that, if children are encouraged to speak and are listened to, then it will rather be easier for any violations to be exposed.